DC SPEED CONTROL MOTOR USING MICROCONTROLLER

 A PROJECT REPORT ON
"DC SPEED CONTROL MOTOR USING MICROCONTROLLER”
                   Prepared By:
                               
                                           Valand Akshay                                       136120324057
                                           Waghari Akash                                       136120324059
                                           Vyas Prashant                                         136120324060
                                           Zanzmera Dharmesh                               136120324063
                                           Dhodiya Rahul                                        146128324002
                                         

                                                                              YEAR: -2015-2016
                                                    POWER ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT
  Dr. S. & S.S. GHANDHY COLLEGE OF EGG.& TECH.
  Under the guidance of



Mr. SHAILESH. L. DHORIYANI



Dr. S. & S.S. GHANDHY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY




CERTIFICATE

    This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “DC SPEED CONTROL MOTOR USING MICROCONTROLLER” has been carried out by vayash parshant (136120324059) , Dharmesh (136120324061), waghari Akash (136120324060), Dhodiya Rahul (146128324002) ,valand Akshay (136120324057) student of diploma in power Electronics Engineering under my supervision. They completed his work within a period prescribed under the ordinances governing the course leading to the Diploma in power Electronics Engineering in Dr. S & S.S GHANDHY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, SURAT.

Date: _____________________

Place: __________

 Mr. SHAILESH. L. DHORIYANI                   SHRI KALPAJ   J. DHIMAR         (Lecturer in Power Electronics)             (Head of the Department)

DECLARATION
     
       We hereby declare that the Dissertation report entitled “Four Quadrant Dc motor control Without Microcontroller” is being submitted in the partial fulfillment for the award of the Diploma of power Electronics Engineering to   Dr. S. & S. S. GHANDHY COLLEGE OF ENGG. & TECHNOLOGY, Surat is authentic record of my own work done under the guidance of Mr. S. L. DHORIYANI, in power Electronics Engineering Department. The matter reported in this Dissertation has not been submitted at any other place for award of any degree or diploma.

                        Valand Akshay                                       136120324057
                                     Waghari Akash                                     136120324059
                                     Vyas Prashant                                       136120324060
                                     Zanzmera Dharmesh                            136120324063
                                     Dhodiya Rahul                                      146128324002
                                       

 

DATE: ___________


PLACE: ___________
               
                                              ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
    
               We wish to express my sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my respected Prof .SHAILESH. L. DHORIYAN sir who has guided and helped me throughout the journey of preparation and every respect in competitions of project and it gives me great pleasure in bringing out this project report to our Power electronic Branch entitled "DC SPEED CONTROL MOTOR USING MICROCONTROLLER"

          Valand Akshay                                        136120324057
                                  Waghari Akash                                        136120324059
                                   Vyas Prashant                                        136120324060
                                   Zanzmera Dharmesh                             136120324063
                                   Dhodiya Rahul                                       146128324002
                                                            
ABSTRACT                    
The aim of development this project is to control the speed of DC motor, The main advantage in using a DC motor is that the speed torque
                                   INDEX
                                                    
SR.NO.
CHAPTERS
PAGE NO.
1
INTRODUCTION
7
2
SPECIFICATION
8
3
BLOCK DIAGRAM
9
4
PROJECT DISCRIPTION
10
5
PRACTICAL CIRCUIT
42
6
OBSERVATION TABLE
44
7
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGE
45
8
APPLICATION
46
9
 FUATURE SCOPE
47
10
CONCLUSION
48
11
COST
49
12
DATA SHEET
50
13
REFARANCE
86


CHEPTER-1

INTRODUCTION


.     Motion control is required for all manufacturing plants in industries like chemical, pharmaceutical, plastic and textile. Hence motion control plays vital role in automation which may be a flow -control application, flat belt application, or mixing of substances .on the basis of their application different types of motor like ac, stepper motor or DC motor are used among the various type of motor used in industrial purpose DC motor are widely been accepted since its speed can be varied very easily servo motors are used in robotic


CHEPTER-2

SPECIFICATION
         
Ø  Supply side :-
·           Input voltage :- 230 V    
·           Input frequency :- 50 Hz
·           Output voltage :-  5 V
Ø   Control circuit side :-
       Input voltage: - 230 V
       Input current: - depend on load
       Input frequency :-  50 Hz
       Output voltage :- Depend on firing angle


      CHEPTER-3
BLOCK DIAGRAM

CHEPTER-4


PROJECT-DISCRIPTION



               
Ø DC shunt motor :-
             motor is any of a class of electrical machines that converts direct current electrical power into mechanical power. The most common types rely on the forces produced by magnetic fields. Nearly all types of DC motors have some internal mechanism, either electromechanical or electronic, to periodically change the direction of current flow in part of the motor. Most types produce rotary motion; a linear motor directly produces force and motion in a straight line.


 DC motors were the first type widely used, since they could be powered from existing direct-current lighting power distribution systems. A DC motor's speed can be controlled over a wide range, using either a variable supply voltage or by changing the strength of current in its field windings. Small DC motors are used in tools, toys, and appliances. The universal motor can operate on direct current but is a lightweight motor used for portable power tools and appliances. Larger DC motors are used in propulsion of electric vehicles, elevator and hoists, or in drives for steel rolling mills. The advent of power electronics has made replacement of DC motors with AC motors possible in many applications.

      
         Transformer :-      
            3 primary connections on a transformer's primary and you know the output is 9- 0- 9V., use a multimeter on ohms range to find the 2 connections with the greatest resistance between them. Connect them to the 230V., then quickly check the secondary has 18V (9- 0- 9) AC approximately, it will probably be a little higher in practice. If it is under by about 1/2, disconnect and find the primary connections with the next highest ohmic reading.

               Connect the 230 to those, and again check secondary AC volts. If still low, use the last pairing and recheck again. Use the connections that produce the more nearly correct output.
                A more elegant way would be supply 18V. AC to the secondary, and with the meter, look for approx. 230V. on the primary connect time


 LTS543 common-cathode 7-segment display:-
      
           A seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot matrix displays.

           Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks, electronic meters, basic calculators, and other electronic devices that display numerical information.

Push-to-on switch :-
      
     A push button is a momentary or non-latching switch which causes a temporary change in the state of an electrical circuit only while the switch is physically actuated. An automatic mechanism (i.e. a spring) returns the switch to its default position immediately afterwards, restoring the initial circuit condition. There are two types:

              A push to make switch allows electricity to flow between its two contacts when held in. When the button is released, the circuit is broken. This type of switch is also known as a Normally Open (NO) Switch. (Examples: doorbell, computer case power switch, calculator buttons, individual keys on a keyboard)


              A push to break switch does the opposite, i.e. when the button is not pressed, electricity can flow, but when it is pressed the circuit is broken. This type of switch is also known as a Normally Closed (NC) Switch. (Examples: Fridge Light Switch, Alarm Switches in Fail-Safe circuits)
              Many Push switches are designed to function as both push to make and push to break switches

 LED (light Emitting Diode) :-
               LED lamp is a light-emitting diode (LED) product which is assembled into a lamp (or light bulb) for use in lighting fixtures. LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times longer than incandescent lamps, and significantly more efficient than most fluorescent lamps

Ø Diode :-
In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance to the flow of current in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. A semiconductor diode, the most common type today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p-n junction connected to two electrical terminals. A vacuum tube diode has two electrodes, a plate (anode) and a heated cathode. Semiconductor diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices. The discovery of crystals' rectifying abilities was made by German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1874. The first semiconductor diodes, called cat's whisker diodes, developed around 1906, were made of mineral crystals such as galena. Today, most diodes are made of silicon, but other semiconductors such as selenium or germanium are sometimes used.
Capacitor :-
         (1) 1000µF, 25V electrolytic:-
 Description: Electrolytic decoupling capacitors 1000uF/25V. These capacitors are great transient/surge suppressors and work well in high-voltage and audio applications. High quality radial electrolytic capacitors.

(2). 22pF ceramic disk:-            
                A ceramic capacitor is a fixed value capacitor in which ceramic material acts as the dielectric. It is constructed of two or more alternating layers of ceramic and a metal layer acting as the electrodes. The composition of the ceramic material defines the electrical behavior and therefore applications. Ceramic capacitors are divided into two application classes:
            
Class 1 ceramic capacitors offer high stability and low losses for resonant circuit applications. 
Class 2 ceramic capacitors offer high volumetric efficiency for buffer, by-pass, and coupling applications.

8051 PIN DIAGRAM & DESCRIPT

For describing pin diagram and pin configuration of 8051, we are taking into consideration a 40 pin DIP (Dual inline package). Now lets go through pin configuration in detail. Pin-40 : Named as Vcc is the main power source. Usually its +5V DC. You may note some pins are designated with two signals (shown in brackets). Pins 32-39: Known as Port 0 (P0.0 to P0.7) – In addition to serving as I/O port, lower order address and data bus signals are multiplexed with this port (to serve the purpose of external memory interfacing). This is a bi directional I/O port (the only one in 8051) and external pull up resistors are required to function this port as I/O. Pin-31:- ALE aka Address Latch Enable is used to demultiplex the address-data signal of port 0 (for external memory interfacing.) 2 ALE pulses are available for each
machine cycle. Pin-30:- EA/ External Access input is used to enable or disallow external memory interfacing. If there is no external memory requirement, this pin is pulled high by connecting it to Vcc.
Pin- 29:- PSEN or Program Store Enable is used to read signal from external program memory.
Pins- 21-28:- Known as Port 2 (P2.0 to P 2.7) – in addition to serving as I/O port, higher order address bus signals are multiplexed with this quasi bi directional port.


8051 INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE


There is no need of any detailed explanation to understand internal architecture of 8051 micro controller. Just look at the diagram above and you observer it carefully. The system bus connects all the support devices with the central processing unit. 8051 system bus composes of an 8 bit data bus and a 16 bit address bus and bus control signals. From the figure you can understand that all other devices like program memory, ports, data memory, serial interface, interrupt control, timers, and the central processing unit are all interfaced together through the system bus. RxD and TxD (serial port input and output) are interfaced with port 3.

8051 Memory Organization
Before going deep into the memory architecture of 8051, lets talk a little bit about two variations available for the same. They are Princeton architecture and Harvard architecture. Princeton architecture treats address memory and data memory as a single unit (does not distinguish between two) where as Harvard architecture treats program memory and data memory as separate entities.Thus Harvard architecture demands address, data and control bus for accessing them separately where as Princeton architecture does not demand any such separate bus.

IC 7806 VOLTAGE REGULATOR

  7806 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is a member of 78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulator ICs. The voltage source in a circuit may have fluctuations and would not give the fixed voltage output. The voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant value. The xx in 78xx indicates the fixed output voltage it is designed to provide. 7806 provide +6V regulated power supply Capacitors of suitable values can be connected at input and output pins depending upon the respective voltage levels.  

Internal block diagram lc voltage regulter

                  Pin No
                   Function
                      Name
1
Input voltage (5v-18v)
Input
2
Ground (0v)
Ground
3
Regulated output; 6v (5.78v-6.25v)
Output

TIP122 NPN Power Darlington Transistor:-

                In electronics, the Darlington transistor (often called a Darlington pair) is a compound structure consisting of two bipolar transistors (either integrated or separated devices) connected in such a way that the current amplified by the first transistor is amplified further by the second one.

                   This configuration gives a much higher current gain than each transistor taken separately and, in the case of integrated devices, can take less space than two individual transistors because they can use a shared collector. Integrated Darlington pairs come packaged singly in transistor-like packages or as an       array of devices (usually eight) in an integrated circuit.

Crystal XTAL 12MHz :-

A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time, as in quartz wristwatches, to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers.

             The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits incorporating them became known as crystal oscillators but other piezoelectric materials including polycrystalline ceramics are used in similar circuits

ON/OFF Switch :-

       The mechanism of a switch may be operated directly by a human operator to control a circuit (for example, a light switch or a keyboard button), may be operated by a moving object such as a door-operated switch, or may be operated by some sensing element for pressure, temperature or flow.
            A relay is a switch that is operated by electricity. Switches are made to handle a wide range of voltages and currents; very large switches may be used to isolate high-voltage circuits in electrical substations.

Connector for power supply :-

           An electrical connector is an electro-mechanical device for joining electrical circuits as an interface using a mechanical assembly. Connectors consist of plugs (male-ended) and jacks (female-ended). The connection may be temporary, as for portable equipment, require a tool for assembly and removal, or serve as a permanent electrical joint between two wires or devices. 
An adapter can be used to effectively bring together dissimilar connectors.here are hundreds of types of electrical connectors. Connectors may join two lengths of flexible copper wire or cable, or connect a wire or cable to an electrical terminal.


CHEPTER-5

PRACTICAL CIRCUIT